Education Edge PMP PMBOK Week 4 Office Read – Quality Knowledge Area


Project Quality Management
Project Quality Management determines quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.




Project Quality Management supports continuous process improvement activities as undertaken on behalf of the performing organization.




Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements.




Gradeis a category assigned to products or services having the same functional use but different technical characteristics.




Precision means the value of repeated measurements are clustered and have little scatter.




Accuracy means that the measured value is very close to the true value.




Cost of quality refers to the total cost of all efforts related to quality throughout the product life cycle.




Quality Philosophies associated to:




W. Edwards Deming– PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act), Quality is a Management problem, Started the TQM movement


Dr. Joseph Juran– 80/20 Principle, Fitness for Use, Quality & Grade


Phillip Crosby– Zero Defects, Quality is ‘Free’, Right’ the First Time, Prevention is the ‘Key’




Kaizen is a Japanese word that means gradual continuous improvement.




The knowledge area of Project Quality Management consists of the following three processes:




Process Name
Project Management Process Group
Key Deliverables
Plan Quality Management
Quality Management Plan, Process Improvement Plan
Perform Quality Assurance
Change Requests
Perform Quality Control
Monitoring and Controlling
Validated Deliverables, Validated Changes




Plan Quality Managementis the process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables.




Quality planning must consider cost-benefit tradeoffs by performing Cost-Benefit Analysis.




Cost of quality includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non-conformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failing to meet requirements (rework).




Cost of Conformance– Money spent before or during project to avoid failures


Prevention Costs


Appraisal Costs


Cost of non-conformance– Money spent during and after the project because of failures


              Internal Failure Costs


External Failure Costs




Seven Basic Quality Tools




Cause-and-effect diagrams, which are also known as fishbone diagrams or as Ishikawa diagrams




Flowcharts, which are also referred to as process maps because they display the sequence of steps and the branching possibilities that exist




Check sheets, which are also known as tally sheets and may be used as a checklist when gathering data




Pareto diagrams exist as a special form of vertical bar chart and are used to identify the vital few sources that are responsible for causing most of a problem’s effects




Histograms are a special form of bar chart and are used to describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution




Control charts, are used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance




Scatter diagrams, plot ordered pairs (X, Y) and are sometimes called correlation charts because they seek to explain a change in the dependent variable




Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned project practices to those of comparable projects to identify best practices.




Design of experiments (DOE)is a statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production.




Statistical samplinginvolves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection.




The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Plan Quality Management process are given below:




Project Management Plan
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Quality Management Plan
Stakeholder Register
Cost of Quality
Process Improvement Plan
Risk Register
Seven Basic Quality Tools
Quality Metrics
Requirements Documentation
Quality Checklists
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Design of Experiments
Project Documents updates
Organizational Process Assets
Statistical Sampling
Additional quality planning tools




Perform Quality Assuranceis the process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.




The key benefit of this process is that it facilitates the improvement of quality processes.




The quality metrics provide the attributes that should be measured and the allowable variations.


Seven Quality Management and Control Tools




Affinity diagrams is similar to mind-mapping techniques in that they are used to generate ideas that can be linked to form organized patterns of thought about a problem.




Process decision program charts (PDPC) used to understand a goal in relation to the steps for getting to the goal.




Interrelationship digraphs provide a process for creative problem solving in moderately complex scenarios that possess intertwined logical relationships for up to 50 relevant items.




Tree diagrams also known as systematic diagrams and may be used to represent decomposition hierarchies such as the WBS, RBS (risk breakdown structure), and OBS (organizational breakdown structure).




Prioritization matrices – Identify the key issues and the suitable alternatives to be prioritized as a set of decisions for implementation.




Activity network diagrams previously known as arrow diagrams. They include both the AOA (Activity on Arrow) and, most commonly used, AON (Activity on Node) formats of a network diagram.




Matrix diagrams used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix.




A quality audit is a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.




Process analysisfollows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.




The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Perform Quality Assurance process are given below:




Quality Management Plan
Quality Management and Control Tools
Change Requests
Process Improvement Plan
Quality audits
Project Management Plan Updates
Quality Metrics
Process analysis
Project Documents updates
Quality Control Measurements
Organizational Process Assets updates
Project Documents




Control Qualityis the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.




Control Qualityshould be performed throughout the project.




Prevention (keeping errors out of the process); Inspection (keeping errors out of the hands of the customer)




Attribute sampling (result conforms, or it doesn’t)




Variables sampling (the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity)




Statistical sampling (measures only a percentage of items e.g. 5 out of every 100)




Special causes (unusual events)




Common or random causes (normal process variation)


Tolerances (the result is acceptable if it falls within range specified by tolerance)




Control limits (the process is in control if the result falls within the control limits)




A deliverableis any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability that results in a validated deliverable required by the project.




An inspectionis the examination of a work product to determine if it conforms to documented standards.




Rule of Seven which is when 7 values in a row are all below or all above the mean or increase/decrease in one direction.




Quality control measurementsare the documented results of control quality activities.




The results of performing the Control Quality process are verified deliverables.




Work Performance Information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across areas.




The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Control Quality process are given below:




Project Management Plan
Seven Basic Quality Tools
Quality Control Measurements
Quality Metrics
Statistical Sampling
Validated Changes
Quality Checklists
Validated Deliverables
Work Performance Data
Approved Change Requests Review
Work Performance Information
Approved Change Requests
Change Requests
Project Management Plan Updates
Project Documents
Project Documents updates
Organizational Process Assets
Organizational Process Assets updates


Share your love

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *