Education Edge – Stakeholder Knowledge Area

Knowledge Area #10 – Stakeholder

Critical Highlights:

• stakeholders are groups/individuals who may affect / be affected by the project
• identify stakeholders is a continually process throughout the project lifecycle
• identify stakeholders, communicate and engage them, manage expectations and focus on satisfaction
• stakeholder satisfaction is a key project objective
• the Project Manager is responsible for the engaging and managing the various stakeholders in a project

Processes (4)

1. Identify Stakeholders

2. Plan Stakeholder Management

3. Manage Stakeholder Expectations

4. Control Stakeholder Expectations


1. Identify Stakeholders

• identify stakeholders and document their importance/influence (=active involvement) /impact/interest/involvement
• 3 ‘I’s: importance, interest, influence
• stakeholders from operation process needed to be included
• determine the stakeholders’ hot buttons (what response in specific situations) and develop support strategies
• procurement documents are used for determining external stakeholders such as the seller
• stakeholders have the greatest influence in the initial stage of the project
• stakeholder analysis matrix is part of the stakeholder management strategy (output of identify stakeholders)
• Salience Model: describing stakeholders based on the power (influence), urgency and legitimacy
• document only influential stakeholders if there is a large number of stakeholders
• document the impact using a power/influence grid, power/interest grid, influence/impact grid, salience model

2. Plan Stakeholder Management

• management strategies to engage stakeholders throughout project lifecycle
• Stakeholder Management Plan contains: current/desired engagement levels, scope and impact to stakeholders, interrelationships, communication requirements and forms, how to update the plan
• The distribution of this plan requires precautions as the engagement level of stakeholders is a very sensitive information
• Engagement Level:
Resistant: resistant to change
Supportive: supportive of change
Leading: actively engaged for project success
• Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix: (C-current level, D-desired level)

3. Manage Stakeholder Engagement

• aim: increase support and minimize resistance from stakeholders by addressing issues
• the communication requirements of individual stakeholder are recorded in the Project Communication Plan
• PM may call upon sponsor for assistance
• communicate and work with stakeholders to meet their needs/expectations and address issues
• build trust and resolve conflicts, negotiation skills, communication skills
• need to communicate bad news/issues in a timely manner
• feedback from stakeholders is stored in OPA
• the Issue Log (Action Item Log): to identify issues/define impacts, owner (most important element) and priority/with due date


4. Control Stakeholder Engagement

• monitor overall stakeholder relationships and adjusting strategies


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